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Most owner-operator drivers do not have any kind of medical insurance that is, in the USA where medical treatment isn't free of charge like most countries.

Moreover, truckers have difficulties making an appointment on the road and often do not know where to stop for assistance.

Many self-diagnose or ignore their health issue altogether. Health care costs are substantially higher for overweight and obese individuals, so obesity in the truck driver population puts a greater financial demand on the industry.

In the s the administration of President Ronald Reagan proposed to put an end to drug abuse in the trucking industry by means of the then-recently developed technique of urinalysis , with his signing of Executive Order , requiring regular random drug testing of all truck drivers nationwide, as well as employees of other DOT -regulated industries specified in the order, though considerations had to be made concerning the effects of an excessively rapid implementation of the measure.

Because of the U. After the stock-market crash , for example, the chain reaction of reduction in sales due to consumers' prioritizing and reducing purchases of luxury items, with companies responding by reducing production and increasing unemployment, exacerbating the cycle of reduction or elimination of production, sales, and employment, had the ultimate result of plunging the nation's economy into the Great Depression.

Likewise, it had to be considered that a sudden halting or stunting of the movement of merchandise, as would occur with a large and sudden vacating of the cargo-transportation workforce, would have similar consequences.

In the years and decades following Executive Order , efforts to begin random drug testing and pre-employment drug screening of truck drivers were not expedited, leaving the change to occur gradually, out of concern for the dangers of excessively rapid change in economic infrastructure.

Since then, a large number of tractor-trailer operators have left the industry in search of other employment, and a new generation of drivers has come in.

Subsequent to the measure it became extremely difficult for truck drivers to engage in drug abuse and remain undetected. Truck drivers once had a highly elaborate and colorful vocabulary of slang for use over their CB radios , but with the high turnover in the industry in recent decades, this has all but vanished.

Most of the newer generation of drivers in the U. Often older truck drivers speaking over their CB radios are frustrated at new-school truck drivers' lack of understanding of the trucking slang of the '60s, '70s and '80s, and grudgingly resort to standard English when communicating with them.

However today the slang is mostly gone, and some companies such as Swift Transportation consider the CB a safety hazard and prohibit the installation of a CB radio in their tractors.

One form of unspoken communication between drivers is to flash headlights on or off once or twice to indicate that a passing truck has cleared the passed vehicle and may safely change lanes in front of the signaling vehicle.

The passing driver may then flash the trailer or marker lights to indicate thanks. This signal is also sometimes used by other motorists to signal truck drivers.

Continual flashing of headlights or high beams after emerging from around a corner beside a high wall or from any roadway out of sight to oncoming traffic will alert a truck driver in the oncoming lanes to an accident or other obstruction ahead and will warn him to reduce speed or to proceed with caution.

Since truck-driver language has no signal for "Do not move in front of me," nor has any understood length of time for turning headlights or high beams on or off, flashing the high-beams to say "Do not move in front of me" may be misinterpreted to mean that the truck is clear to proceed with the lane change in front of the vehicle giving the signal.

As a rule, "thanks" is signaled to the vehicle behind by switching between the left- and right-turn signal several times, whereas turning on the hazard-warning lights both turn signals means "Slow down; danger ahead".

As cars would normally use the hazard-warning lights for "thanks", in trucks distinction is necessary. The truck blocks the view of drivers behind it, hence a distinction must be made between "Thanks for letting me pass" and "Danger in front, I may brake hard!

Truck drivers also use flashing headlights to warn drivers in the oncoming lane s of a police patrol down the road.

Though not official, two consecutive flashes indicate a police patrol, whereas a rapid series of flashing indicates DMV or other law-enforcement agency that only controls truck drivers.

During the day time, the latter is sometimes accompanied by the signaling driver making a circle with both hands as if holding a tachograph ring.

Flashing headlights to the vehicle in front intended for the other driver to see in their mirror has two meanings.

Long flashes are used to signal a truck driver that they are clear to return to the lane. A series of rapid flashes generally means "You're doing something stupid or dangerous" as in "Do not move in front, trailer not clear!

Truckers also use their 4 ways flashing up a steep hill, mountain roads and on ramps on express ways to let others know that they are traveling at a slow speed and to be cautious approaching them.

In Europe, the general rule for truckers in a right hand driving country is to raise the left hand and to simply open the hand with all fingers extended without waving it at all with the palm facing forward, known as 'the flat hand'.

Or a shorter version is to simply extend the fingers while still keeping the palm in contact with the steering wheel. Raising the right hand is also used in the same way but very rare.

Truck drivers have been the subject of many films, such as They Drive by Night , but they became an especially popular topic in popular culture in the mids, following the release of White Line Fever , and the hit song " Convoy " by C.

McCall , both in The main character of "Convoy" was a truck driver known only by his CB handle C. Three years later, in , a film was released with the same name.

In , another film Smokey and the Bandit , was released, which revolves around the escapades of a truck driver and his friend as they transport a load of bootleg beer across state lines.

Smokey and the Bandit spawned two sequels. The film F. On 17 June , the History Channel began to air Ice Road Truckers , a documentary-style reality television series following truck drivers as they drive across the ice roads in the Northwest Territories in Canada, as they transport equipment to the oil and natural gas mines in that area.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Truck Driver disambiguation. For other uses, see Trucker disambiguation. For the film, see Lorry Driver film.

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Farlex inc. Retrieved 23 February Retrieved Archived from the original on February Archived from the original PDF on 28 November Retrieved 19 March Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration.

Business Insider. Retrieved August 5, Retrieved 21 September Heavy Duty Trucking. Roads and Maritime Services. Retrieved 19 February Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance, April 1st, Archived from the original PDF on Transportation Security Administration.

Federal Highway Administration. Heavy Haul Trucking. Detroit Free Press. Retrieved April 16, Southeast Michigan Council of Governments.

MDOT points to lack of funding compared to Ohio". Department of Transportation , Federal Highway Administration. June 15, Retrieved April 21, Occupational Outlook Handbook.

Bureau of Labor Statistics, U. Department of Labor. May General Services Administration. Wall Street Journal. Memphis Business Journal.

Morning edition. National Public Radio. Retrieved April 17, Oxford University Press. July Retrieved March 17, August 24, News and World Report.

Knestaut Fall Compensation and Working Conditions. Bureau of Labor Statistics. August Retrieved 4 January Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts Retrieved from www.

Windau Spring Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Insurance News Net. July 2, National Transportation Safety Board.

California Environmental Protection Agency. State of California Department of Motor Vehicles. Retrieved 21 October Federal Register.

Retrieved 24 October Asset Alliance Group. Occup Environ Med. Retrieved 5 January Work and sleep among transport operators: Disparities and implications for safety.

Hours of Service of Drivers. Publication No. Table 2. Large Truck and Bus Crash Facts - Retrieved March 16, Retrieved 22 October So why am I being told that it's mandatory?

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Repeated and regular occurrences, however, might indicate to enforcement officers that employers were not in fact scheduling work to enable compliance with the applicable rules.

Heavy vehicle work time requirements [9] in New Zealand are:. Commercial motor vehicle CMV drivers are limited to 11 cumulative hours driving in a hour period, following a rest period of no less than 10 consecutive hours.

Drivers employed by carriers in "daily operation" may not work more than 70 hours within any period of 8 consecutive days. Drivers must maintain a daily hour logbook record of duty status documenting all work and rest periods.

The record of duty status must be kept current to the last change of duty status and records of the previous seven days retained by the driver in the truck and presented to law enforcement officials on demand.

Electronic on-board recorders EOBR can automatically record, among other things, the time the vehicle is in motion or stopped.

A shortage of truck drivers has been reported in the United States. Retention rates are low. Truck drivers are paid according to many different methods.

These include salary, hourly, and a number of methods which can be broadly defined as piece work. Piece work methods may include both a base rate and additional pay.

Base rates either compensate drivers by the mile or by the load. A company driver who makes a number of "less than truckload" LTL deliveries via box truck or conventional tractor-trailer may be paid an hourly wage, a certain amount per mile, per stop aka "drop" or "dock bump" or per piece delivered, unloaded or tailgated i.

The main advantage of being paid by the mile may be that a driver is rewarded according to measurable accomplishment.

The main disadvantage is that what a driver may accomplish is not so directly related to the effort and, perhaps especially, the time required for completion.

Household good drivers deal with the most complexity and thus are typically the highest paid, potentially making multiples of a scheduled freight-hauler.

Mileage calculations vary from carrier to carrier. Hub miles, or odometer miles "hub" refers to hubometer , a mechanical odometer mounted to an axle , pay the driver for every mile.

One version of hub miles includes only those per carrier designated route, i. Many of the largest long haul trucking companies in the United States pay their drivers according to short miles.

Short miles are the absolute shortest distance between two or more zip codes, literally a straight line drawn across the map.

These short miles rarely reflect the actual miles that must be driven in order to pick up and deliver freight, but they will be used to calculate what the driver will earn.

Short miles are on average about ten percent less than actual miles but in some cases the difference can be as large as 50 percent. An extreme but not unheard of example would be a load that picked up in Brownsville, Texas, and delivered in Miami, Florida.

This journey would require the driver to travel over miles. The short routing however would believe the distance to be only , as though the truck could drive across the Gulf of Mexico.

Another extreme example would be a load that picked up in Buffalo, New York, and delivered in Green Bay, Wisconsin, not giving any consideration that three of America's Great Lakes lie between that load's origin and destination.

Other obvious obstacles would be mountains and canyons. Truck prohibited routes sometimes create this same phenomenon, requiring a driver to drive several truck-legal routes and approaching a destination from behind essentially driving a fish hook-shaped route , because the most direct route cannot accommodate heavy truck traffic.

Some trucking companies have tried to alleviate some of these discrepancies by paying their drivers according to "practical miles".

This is where dispatch gives them a certain route to follow and will pay them for those. This is done in effort of compensating drivers for the actual work done.

These routes will largely follow the Interstate Highway system but will sometimes require the driver to use state and U. Trucking companies practice this method in order to attract and retain veteran drivers.

Household goods HHG miles, from the Household Goods Mileage Guide aka "short miles" was the first attempt at standardizing motor carrier freight rates for movers of household goods, some say at the behest of the Department of Defense for moving soldiers around the country, long a major source of steady and reliable revenue.

Today, the 19th version of the Guide has grown to contain distances between more than , cities, zip codes, or highway junctions.

Getting paid by percentage is the preferred way of business among veteran drivers and owner-operators. Typical percentage among owner-operators pulling flatbed trailers is between percent of line haul being paid to the driver.

Additionally the driver may receive percent of fuel surcharges and fees for extra pickups or drops or for tarping loads.

It creates strong incentives for drivers for agreeing to pull especially difficult loads; i. It also discourages drivers and owner-operators from agreeing to move "cheap freight".

In Australia heavy vehicle licenses are issued by the states but are a national standard; there are 5 classes of license required by drivers of heavy vehicles:.

A driver's license in Canada , including commercial vehicle licenses, are issued and regulated provincially. Regarding CDL commercial drivers licenses , there is no standardization between provinces and territories.

In Australia, for example, a HC license covers buses as well as goods vehicles in the UK and most of the EU however a separate license is needed.

The United States employs a truck classification system, and truck drivers are required to have a commercial driver's license CDL to operate a CMV with a gross vehicle weight rating in excess of 26, pounds.

Acquiring a CDL requires a skills test pre-trip inspection and driving test , and knowledge test written covering the unique handling qualities of driving a large, heavily loaded commercial vehicle, and the mechanical systems required to operate such a vehicle air brakes, suspension, cargo securement, et al.

For passenger bus drivers, a current passenger endorsement is also required. A person must be at least 18 years of age to obtain a CDL.

Drivers under age 21 are limited to operating within their state of licensing intrastate operation. Many major trucking companies require driver applicants to be at least 23 years of age, with a year of experience, while others will hire and train new drivers as long as they have a clean driving history.

The U. A CDL can also contain separate endorsements required to operate certain trailers or to haul certain cargo.

Other endorsements are possible, e. The laws of the state from whence a driver's CDL is issued are considered the applicable laws governing that driver.

If a driver either fails the air brake component of the general knowledge test or performs the skills test in a vehicle not equipped with air brakes, the driver is issued an air brake restriction, restricting the driver from operating a CMV equipped with air brakes.

Specifically, the five-axle tractor-semitrailer combination that is most commonly associated with the word "truck" requires a Class A CDL to drive.

Beyond that, the driver's employer or shipping customers, in the case of an independent owner-operator generally specifies what endorsements their operations require a driver to possess.

Truck drivers are responsible for checking the axle and gross weights of their vehicles, usually by being weighed at a truck stop scale.

Truck weights are monitored for limits compliance by state authorities at a weigh station and by DOT officers with portable scales.

Commercial motor vehicles are subject to various state and federal laws regarding limitations on truck length measured from bumper to bumper , width, and truck axle length measured from axle to axle or fifth wheel to axle for trailers.

The relationship between axle weight and spacing, known as the Federal Bridge Gross Weight Formula , is designed to protect bridges. A standard wheeler consists of three axle groups: a single front steering axle, the tandem dual drive axles, and the tandem trailer axles.

Federal weight limits for NN traffic are: [30]. Interstate commercial truck traffic is generally limited to a network of interstate freeways and state highways known as the National Network NN.

The National Network consists of 1 the Interstate Highway System and 2 highways, formerly classified as Primary System routes, capable of safely handling larger commercial motor vehicles, as certified by states to FHWA.

State weight and length limits which may be lesser or greater than federal limits affect the only operation of the NN. States considered to be in the eastern half of the United States use 13'6" as the maximum height.

States west of these have maximum heights of 14' with the exception of Colorado and Nebraska that have a maximum height of 14'6".

Alaska has a maximum height of 15'. Although it is contended that this is one reason why Michigan has the worst roads in the country [34] along with lack of funding—Michigan is dead last among the fifty states [A] , a measure to change the law was just defeated in the Michigan Senate.

In the United States, there is a lot of unpaid time, usually at a Shipper or Receiver where the truck is idle awaiting loading or unloading. Prior to the HOS changes it was common for 4—8 hours to elapse during this evolution.

CSA addressed this and incorporated legal methods for drivers and trucking companies to charge for this excessive time.

In , the U. Very few new hires are expected in the near future, resulting in a driver shortage. Currently, within the long-haul sector, there is an estimated shortage of 20, drivers.

That shortage is expected to increase to , by To help combat the shortage, trucking companies have lobbied Congress to reduce driver age limits, which they say will reduce a recruiting shortfall.

Under current law, drivers need to be 21 to haul freight across state lines, which the industry wants to lower to 18 years old.

Employee turnover within the long-haul trucking industry is notorious for being extremely high. There is a shortage of willing trained long distance truck drivers.

Part of the reason for the shortage is the economic fallout from deregulation of the trucking industry. Michael H. Belzer is an internationally recognized expert on the trucking industry, especially the institutional and economic impact of deregulation.

Low pay, bad working conditions and unsafe conditions have been a direct result of deregulation. Due to the nature of the job, most drivers stay out longer than 4 weeks at a time.

A few for months on end and even longer. For the average large company driver in the United States 6 weeks is the average, with each week out garnering the driver one day off.

This accrues to a set maximum usually 6 or 7 days. Vocational and Local drivers are usually home every night or every other night. Most tractors are equipped with sleeper berths that range from 36" to as large as 86" in length.

While there are larger sleepers that get up to " in length, these are not seen in the mainline segment of trucking.

Those are usually seen in the specialized and household moving segments, where the load is either permitted for overweight or oversize or is very light yet bulky.

Truck drivers are five times more likely to die in a work-related accident than the average worker. The unsafe actions of automobile drivers are a contributing factor in about 70 percent of the fatal crashes involving trucks.

More public awareness of how to share the road safely with large trucks is needed. Still, progress has been made. If a truck is stopped by a law enforcement agent or at an inspection station, information on the truck complies and OOS violations are logged.

A violation out of service is defined by federal code as an imminent hazard under 49 U. This has led to some insurance companies wanting to monitor driver behavior and requiring electronic log and satellite monitoring.

In [59] there were fatalities involving large trucks, of which were attributed to combination unit trucks defined as any number of trailers behind a tractor.

In cases where two vehicles, a car and a truck, were involved, 46 percent of the cases involved the truck's driver and 56 percent involved the car's driver.

While the truck and car in two vehicle accidents share essentially half the burden of the accidents not 70 percent as stated above , the top six driver factors are essentially also the same and in approximately equivalent percentages: Prescription drug use, over the counter drug use, unfamiliarity with the road, speeding, making illegal maneuvers, inadequate surveillance.

This suggests that the truck driver makes the same errors as the car driver and vice versa. Truck drivers often spend their nights parked at a truck stop , rest area , or on the shoulder of a freeway ramp.

Sometimes these are in secluded areas or dangerous neighborhoods, which account for a number of deaths due to drivers being targeted by thieves for their valuable cargo, money, and property, or for the truck and trailer themselves.

Drivers of trucks towing flatbed trailers are responsible for securing and strapping down their cargo which often involves climbing onto the cargo itself , and if the load requires tarping necessitates climbing on the load to spread out tarps.

Drivers spend long hours behind the wheel, which can cause strain on the back muscles. Some drivers are responsible for unloading their cargo, which can lead to many back strains and sprains due to overexertion and improper lifting techniques.

Department of Transportation US DOT shows that "parking areas for trucks and buses along major roads and highways are more than adequate across the nation when both public rest areas and commercial parking facilities are factored in.

One challenge of finding truck parking is made difficult perhaps not because there are insufficient parking spaces "nationwide", but where the majority of those spaces are not located, and most needed; near the most densely populated areas where demand for trucked goods is greatest.

As urban areas continue to sprawl, land for development of private truck stops nearby becomes prohibitively expensive and there seems to be an understandable reluctance on the part of the citizenry to live near a facility where a large number of trucks may be idling their engines all night, every night, or to experience the associated increase in truck traffic on local streets.

Exacerbating the problem are parking restrictions or prohibitions in commercial areas where plenty of space exists and the fact that shippers and receivers of freight tend to prefer to ship and receive truckloads in the early and late portions of the business day.

The end result is an increase in truck traffic during the morning and evening rush hours when traffic is most dense, commuters exhibit the least patience, and safety is compromised.

Idling restrictions further complicate the ability of drivers to obtain adequate rest, as this example from California may illustrate:.

Commercial diesel-fueled vehicles with a GVWR greater than 10, pounds are subject to the following idling restrictions effective February 1, You may not:.

Drivers are subject to both civil and criminal penalties for violations of this regulation. Among other things, a truck driver's DAC Report contains the driver's identification Name, DOB, SSN , the name and address of the contributing trucking company, the driver's dates of employment with that company, the driver's reason for leaving that company, whether the driver is eligible for rehire, and comments about the driver's work record e.

It will also indicate whether the company stored drug and alcohol testing information with USIS. The DAC report is as critical to the livelihood of a professional truck driver as the credit report is to a consumer.

When a trucking company reports negative information about a truck driver, it can ruin the driver's career by preventing him or her from finding a truck driving job for several years or more.

As long as truck drivers can be threatened with a false DAC report for standing up to management or leaving their company for a better job elsewhere, working conditions at truck driver jobs will not improve.

The HM and crash indicators are not currently publicly available. The system in use until uses a relative scoring system that is based on comparing carriers to their peers [74].

There have long been truck driver and trucking industry members concerns over the scoring, the bias, especially to smaller carriers according to a General Accountability Office report, [75] associated with the scoring when non-preventable accidents are included, the public posting of the scoring, and a lack of state mandatory procedures ensuring that a citation that was not prosecuted, or that ended favorably for the driver or carrier, was retracted from the national database because it is flawed, artificially raising the driver or carrier scores, and the insurance industry uses these scores to assess risks on insurance.

The hours of service rules has been changed several times since and is a concern to carriers and drivers. With the new electronic logging device ELD rules that became mandatory on December 18, , for carriers subjected to the RODS rules, more issues have resulted.

Drivers need to be aware that along with the ELD rule is a mandate to carry a paper log book and verify that the ELD manual and instruction sheet is in the truck.

A driver must be able to email or fax the data if directed by a DOT officer. If an ELD malfunctions a driver must create a paper log to comply with the seven or eight day requirements, as well as recording the vehicle inspection.

Congress has mandated the system to be overhauled and proposed FMCSA rules were scrapped as a result. New rules being proposed and testing includes a new Item Response Theory IRT model to replace the current relative rankings system began being tested in September with changes due in During February an independent survey on the driver shortage was carried out by a UK freight exchange.

The purpose of the survey was to get the drivers opinions about the HGV driver shortage. The aim was to establish whether the results of the driver's survey could help the industry and government understand the issues that the drivers are currently facing.

The findings of the survey showed that, in the opinion of the drivers, the three main contributing factors to the driver shortage are 1 Poor wages, 2 Poor driver facilities and 3 The way drivers are treated.

Over a third of all drivers who participated in the survey felt that they were not being treated well by the companies they drove for.

Many companies today utilize some type of satellite vehicle tracking or trailer tracking to assist in fleet management. In this context "tracking" refers to a location tracking and "satellite" refers either to a GPS or GLONASS satellites system providing location information or communications satellites used for location data transmission.

A special location tracking device also known as a tracker or an AVL unit is installed on a truck and automatically determines its position in real-time and sends it to a remote computer database for visualizing and analysis.

An "in cab" communication device AVL unit often allows a driver to communicate with their dispatcher , who is normally responsible for determining and informing the driver of their pick-up and drop-off locations.

If the AVL unit is connected to a Mobile data terminal or a computer it also allows the driver to input the information from a bill of lading BOL into a simple dot matrix display screen commonly called a " Qualcomm " for that company's ubiquitous OmniTRACS system.

The driver inputs the information, using a keyboard, into an automated system of pre-formatted messages known as macros.

There are macros for each stage of the loading and unloading process, such as "loaded and leaving shipper" and "arrived at the final destination".

This system also allows the company to track the driver's fuel usage, speed, gear optimization, engine idle time, location, the direction of travel, and the amount of time spent driving.

Werner Enterprises , a U. Instead of keeping track of working hours on a traditional pen and paper based logbook, the driver informs the company of his status using a macro.

Most truck drivers are employed as over-the-road drivers, meaning they are hired to drive long distances from the place of pickup to the place of delivery.

During the short times while they are in heavily polluted urban areas, being inside the cab of the truck contributes much to avoiding the inhalation of toxic emissions, and on the majority of the trip, while they are passing through vast rural areas where there is little air pollution, truck drivers in general enjoy less exposure to toxic emissions in the air than the inhabitants of large cities, where there is an increased exposure to emissions from engines , factories , etc.

However, the few drivers who are hired to drive only within urban areas do not have this advantage of spending more time away from toxic emissions that is enjoyed by over-the-road drivers.

Other conditions affecting the health of truck drivers are for example vibration, noise, long periods of sitting, work stress and exhaustion.

For drivers in developing countries there are additional risks because roads are in appalling conditions and accidents occur more frequently. Truck drivers are even a high-risk group for HIV-infection in those countries.

In order to address the hazards relative to driver fatigue, many countries have laws limiting the amount of time truck drivers can work. Many underdeveloped countries either lack such laws or do not enforce them.

Drivers who work in mines have extra health hazards due to their working conditions, as the roads they travel are particularly treacherous. Research has shown that while some truck drivers may get a sufficient amount of sleep, many suffer from undiagnosed sleep disorders that impact the quality of their sleep.

Truckers are allowed to drive a maximum of 11 hours during a continuous hour period, and must be off duty for at least 10 hours.

Truck drivers are required to keep a HOS-compliant log. Failure to produce a driver's log upon request by an enforcement official or non-compliance with HOA regulations, results in a driving penalty or fine.

Researchers reported that in thirteen percent of the crashes resulting in fatalities or injuries, truck driver fatigue was present. Truck drivers are also sensitive to sleep disorders because of the long hours required at the wheel and, in many cases, the lack of adequate rest.

Traffic fatalities are high and many of them are due to driver fatigue. Drivers with obstructive sleep apnea have a sevenfold increased risk of being involved in a motor vehicle crash.

A CDC report No. Obstructive sleep apnea has been associated with obesity. FMCSA rules states: []. Question 1 states that a motor carrier is responsible for ensuring drivers are medically qualified for operating CMVs in interstate commerce.

For a male anything above 17" and for a female 15" was the minimum criteria with drivers above that having to be tested. A new law was passed in Australia requiring that all "over the road" drivers carry their medical information with them when they "are on the clock".

This will help drivers comply with this new law and can also help deliver quick, accurate medical assistance if and when needed.

Eighty percent of truckers have unhealthful eating patterns as a result of poor food choices and food availability at truck stops is partially to blame.

Lack of exercise is another contributing factor to the obesity epidemic in the truck driver population.

Available areas are truck stops, highway rest areas, trucking terminals, warehouses, and the truck cab. Studies have found the risk of obesity increases in high demand, low control jobs, and more so in jobs with long work hours; [] the truck driving industry falls under these categories.

Also, daytime sleepiness and night disturbances are associated with obesity, [] and are, therefore, common among truck drivers.

Long haul drivers have tight schedules, so they tend to drive longer and get less sleep. Under the old rule, drivers could work up to 82 hours in 7 days.

These regulations were modified in ; but the new rule only permits drivers to work up to 70 hours in 7 days. Though these fines exist, there is minimal enforcement of the law.

Obesity prevalence is affected by access to care for truckers. Company drivers often have issues with insurance, such as necessary pre-approval if out of network.

Most owner-operator drivers do not have any kind of medical insurance that is, in the USA where medical treatment isn't free of charge like most countries.

Moreover, truckers have difficulties making an appointment on the road and often do not know where to stop for assistance. Many self-diagnose or ignore their health issue altogether.

Health care costs are substantially higher for overweight and obese individuals, so obesity in the truck driver population puts a greater financial demand on the industry.

In the s the administration of President Ronald Reagan proposed to put an end to drug abuse in the trucking industry by means of the then-recently developed technique of urinalysis , with his signing of Executive Order , requiring regular random drug testing of all truck drivers nationwide, as well as employees of other DOT -regulated industries specified in the order, though considerations had to be made concerning the effects of an excessively rapid implementation of the measure.

Because of the U. After the stock-market crash , for example, the chain reaction of reduction in sales due to consumers' prioritizing and reducing purchases of luxury items, with companies responding by reducing production and increasing unemployment, exacerbating the cycle of reduction or elimination of production, sales, and employment, had the ultimate result of plunging the nation's economy into the Great Depression.

Likewise, it had to be considered that a sudden halting or stunting of the movement of merchandise, as would occur with a large and sudden vacating of the cargo-transportation workforce, would have similar consequences.

In the years and decades following Executive Order , efforts to begin random drug testing and pre-employment drug screening of truck drivers were not expedited, leaving the change to occur gradually, out of concern for the dangers of excessively rapid change in economic infrastructure.

Since then, a large number of tractor-trailer operators have left the industry in search of other employment, and a new generation of drivers has come in.

Subsequent to the measure it became extremely difficult for truck drivers to engage in drug abuse and remain undetected. Truck drivers once had a highly elaborate and colorful vocabulary of slang for use over their CB radios , but with the high turnover in the industry in recent decades, this has all but vanished.

Most of the newer generation of drivers in the U. Often older truck drivers speaking over their CB radios are frustrated at new-school truck drivers' lack of understanding of the trucking slang of the '60s, '70s and '80s, and grudgingly resort to standard English when communicating with them.

However today the slang is mostly gone, and some companies such as Swift Transportation consider the CB a safety hazard and prohibit the installation of a CB radio in their tractors.

One form of unspoken communication between drivers is to flash headlights on or off once or twice to indicate that a passing truck has cleared the passed vehicle and may safely change lanes in front of the signaling vehicle.

The passing driver may then flash the trailer or marker lights to indicate thanks. This signal is also sometimes used by other motorists to signal truck drivers.

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